Traveling with the Atom

Allegheny College

Compiled by Glen E. Rodgers
Andrea Price
Julie Langsdale


Stamp of Avogadro stating the relationship between the number of particles and volume of a gas when pressure and temperature are held constant. (Photo source: ChemTeam Photo Gallery 15)
Amedeo Avogadro
Italian Physicist
Caricature of Avogadro with Azote (now known as Nitrogen). (Photo source:  Woodrow Wilson website)

Contribution to the Development of the Atomic Concept
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro Count of Quaregna and Cerrato hypothesized that "equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles."  His hypothesis was not widely accepted until after his death when his fellow countryman Cannizzaro convinced other chemists of its validity.  Both Dalton and Berzelius rejected Avogadro's hypothesis which is the main reason why so much controversy surrounded it.  Avogadro coined the term "molecule" and defined it as a combination of atoms.  The number of molecules in a mole of a substance is 6.022 x 1023 and is known as Avogadro's number.

Web Sources of Biographical Information
"Secrets of the Gases" from the website Chemistry: A History, by James R. Fromm (1987)
A Biographical Interview with LORENZO ROMANO AMEDEO CARLO AVOGADRO Count of Quaregna and Cerrato, by
Gayle Brickert-Albrecht
Dan Morton
Web link #3 (put in descriptive title)

Some Web Sources on the History of Atomic Scientists:
The History of Chemistry 1992 Woodrow Wilson Summer Institute
Selected Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry
Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry (and Some Physics too)
Classic Chemistry compiled by Carmen Giunta
History of Science website by Charlesworth
Center for the History of Physics
Echo Exploring & Collecting History Online
Atom: The Incredible World: The History of Atomistics
Nobel Prize WebPage
Biographies of Famous Chemists, University of Liverpool
University of Pennsylvania Biographies
Chemistry: A History
Famous Scientists greatly who contributed to "electro" science: electricity, electromagnetism,
electrical technology, electronics, electrical telegraphy, radio, electrochemistry, electromedicine, etc.
Elements and Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry

Selected Biographical Books, Sections of Books, and Articles
Sacks, Oliver.  Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood. Knopf, New York: 2001. 153-155
Asimov, Isaac.   Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.  Doubleday, Garden City: 1982 277-278
Title of Biography #1 Title of Biography #2 home page
Barnes and Noble home page

Some Scientific/Historical Traveling Sites
Description of Site #1 Address &/or Directions to Site #1
Description of Site #2 Address &/or Directions to Site #2
Description of Site #3 Address &/or Directions to Site #3
Find a Grave Website
Add or subtract sites as necessary or required.
Connect links to site descriptions if available.
Sites include birthplaces, homes, labs, museums, statues, graves.
Erase these notes afterwards.
* see following Rodgers link to scientific/historical sites for further information.
(1) Taken from The Scientific Traveler, Charles Tanford and Jacqueline, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1992).
(2) Taken from A Travel Guide to Scientific Sites of the British Isles, Charles Tanford and Jacqueline Reynolds, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1995).
(3) Taken from Guide of Eurpoean Museums with collections on History of Chemistry, compiled by Jan W. van Spronsen, Federation of European Societies, Antwerp (1996)

Links to Dr. Rodgers' Scientific/Historical Sites will be available here.

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