Traveling with the Atom

Allegheny College

Compiled by Glen E. Rodgers
Colby Mangini
Julie Langsdale

The crystal structure of germanium 
Clemens Alexander Winkler
German Chemist
The atomic symbol of germanium, discovered by Winkler.

Contribution to the Development of the Atomic Concept
Clemens Winkler's major contribution to science was his discovery and isolation of germanium in 1886.  Germanium was the third element predicted by Mendeleev using his periodic table.  Winkler named germanium in honor of his country, Germany. Winkler also played a role in the development of a manufacturing process of sulphuric acid and made advancements in the electrochemical analysis of gases.

Web Sources of Biographical Information
Biography of Clemens Winkler

Some Web Sources on the History of Atomic Scientists:
The History of Chemistry 1992 Woodrow Wilson Summer Institute
Selected Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry
Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry (and Some Physics too)
Classic Chemistry compiled by Carmen Giunta
History of Science website by Charlesworth
Center for the History of Physics
Echo Exploring & Collecting History Online
Atom: The Incredible World: The History of Atomistics
Nobel Prize WebPage
Biographies of Famous Chemists, University of Liverpool
University of Pennsylvania Biographies
Chemistry: A History
Famous Scientists greatly who contributed to "electro" science: electricity, electromagnetism,
electrical technology, electronics, electrical telegraphy, radio, electrochemistry, electromedicine, etc.
Elements and Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry

Selected Biographical Books, Sections of Books, and Articles
Full biographical information on Sacks' book Uncle Tungsten Pages in Uncle Tungsten
Full biographical information on Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology pg. 485
Germanium, Ge, a New Nonmetallic Element
a paper by Clemens Winkler
Title of Biography #2 home page
Barnes and Noble home page

Some Scientific/Historical Traveling Sites
Institute for science and technology history Clemens Winkler memorial place:
Attendance after advance notification, Tel. (03731) 39-2653
Laboratory of Clemens Winkler (an additional link) Winkler memorial place 
Find a Grave Website
Add or subtract sites as necessary or required.
Connect links to site descriptions if available.
Sites include birthplaces, homes, labs, museums, statues, graves.
Erase these notes afterwards.
* see following Rodgers link to scientific/historical sites for further information.
(1) Taken from The Scientific Traveler, Charles Tanford and Jacqueline, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1992).
(2) Taken from A Travel Guide to Scientific Sites of the British Isles, Charles Tanford and Jacqueline Reynolds, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1995).
(3) Taken from Guide of Eurpoean Museums with collections on History of Chemistry, compiled by Jan W. van Spronsen, Federation of European Societies, Antwerp (1996)

Links to Dr. Rodgers' Scientific/Historical Sites will be available here.

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